The Heiliggeistkirche, located directly on the market square, is the largest church in Heidelberg. A distinctive feature of the Gothic hall church, built from sandstone between 1398 and 1515, with a Baroque roof and dome, was the dividing wall, which for over 200 years, from 1706 to 1936, divided the church into two sections: The nave was Protestant, the choir Catholic. The Church of the Holy Spirit is also known as the former location of the Bibliotheca Palatina, the richest collection of writings in Europe at the time, which was located in the church's galleries until 1623. Typical for the Heiliggeistkirche are the small store annexes, which are inserted between the buttresses and today house mainly souvenir stores in addition to small bookstores.

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